Western Australian Institute for Educational Research Inc
ABN: 20 438 800 399

Fourth Annual Research Forum

Friday 25 and Saturday 26 August
Churchlands Campus, Western Australian College of Advanced Education

This page is WAIER's official archival copy of the
text of a printed document issued by WAIER in 1989



5.00 - 6.00Registration EPOA
6.00 - 7.45Forum Opening : Dr. Max Angus

Forum Address : Dr. Alan Bain
Lecturer in Education UWA
"Social Skills in the Classroom"

Presentation of Awards
7.45 - 9.30Forum Dinner


9.00 - 10.30Concurrent Sessions
10.30 - 11.00Morning Tea - EPOA
11.00 - 12.30Concurrent Sessions
12.30 - 1.30Lunch - Refectory
1.30 - 2.30Concurrent Sessions
2.30 - 3.00Colloquium EPOA


19.00Charles HENDERSON
[replacing Judith RIVALLAND]
Barry DOWN
29.30Susan CULLENRichard NILEClare McBEATH
Alistair PEACOCK
310.00Joanne SAMSON

Laurence CHIANG

82.00Graeme LOCKIsabelle PROCTORGeoff GIDDINGS


SESSION ONE 9.00 - 9.30

ROOM EP5 [replaces the presentation originally scheduled for Judith Rivalland]

Community participation in TAFE college governance

Australian TAFE systems are under considerable pressure from government, industry and unions to include in their educational programs a more significant input from industry. A number of mechanisms by which this objective may be met already exists, including college councils.

A recent study has surveyed the operation of existing councils from the perspective of college administrators and from the perspective of a number of councils.

One of thew most conspicuous features to emerge from the study was a recognition of the uniqueness of individual councils. This uniqueness appears to be a function of the individual membership, the college administration, and the interaction of these two groups within the context of the rules or regulations governing the powers, functions and duties of councils in each state or territory.

This unique character is part of the fabric of each college and should be maintained, but at the same time it was evident from the research that most colleges were not making full use of the competencies of their council.

Analysis of individual college councils which appeared to be consistently effective revealed a number of common strategies used by colleges to optimise their full use of the council's competencies. Among those closely associated with effective councils were; well defined council goals; the provision of orientation and/or staff development for council members; council membership representative of the college community; and, the development of a genuine partnership between college administrators and the council.


Reading the Writer : An investigation of 7th grade students' awareness of audience in their narratives within and without the dramatic mode

This research set out to answer the following questions:

  1. How do children demonstrate awareness of audience in their written narratives?
  2. What issues related to audience awareness do children think about as they write narratives?
  3. How will story drama affect students' audience awareness in their production of written narratives.
Although the outcomes of the research were inconclusive, many interesting facets were revealed in the process of the research.


Investigating the Personal Beliefs that Influence Teachers' Classroom Practice

Teachers' personal theories and beliefs strongly influence the implemented curriculum in the classroom. Curriculum innovations have been shown to be susceptible to being 'personalised' by teachers, especially when they require teachers to change their classroom roles. Teachers' roles have been conceptualised over time and, like students' alternative frameworks, can be strongly resistant to change. Teachers' beliefs about the teaching-learning process shape their roles and strongly influence the roles of their students.

Ethnographic-interpretive research provides a means for constructing a picture of teachers' beliefs in relation to their classroom practice. This research approach has been utilised to investigate classroom-based factors associated with low achievement among Aboriginal students in high school mathematics.


Towards Effective Skill Training Environments : An Investigation of Process Variables in Metal Fabrication Workshops

Early work in process - product research linking teacher behaviour to student achievement has laid a solid foundation for present day researchers to be able to differentiate between more and less effective classroom teachers. Similar research in teaching laboratories and workshops has not been as fruitful particularly in subject matter areas common to TAFE.

The findings of this study looking at metal fabrication theory, workshop and drawing classes identify the amount of time students spend on task, academically engaged and performing appropriate hand skills.

A detailed analysis of hand skills in drawing classes and workshop sessions identifies the quality dimensions of pre-apprentice and apprentice skill development and the function of teacher feedback in this regard.

Recommendations for future research in this area and the development of effective skill training environments in metal fabrications are discussed.

Barry DOWN

The State and Education: A Framework for Interpreting the Emergence of Mass Secondary Schooling in Western Australia 1945-1983.

This presentation argues that the emergence of mass secondary schooling in Western Australia cannot be understood without a consistent theory of the capitalist state. This is particularly the case with respect to the history of schooling. Expanding capital accumulation and increasing the legitimation of the social formation seem to be the principal roles of the capitalist state, a role that is permeated with contradiction, inconsistency and tension. Coming to terms with this tension is a key challenge for the education system.

SESSION TWO 9.30 - 10.00


Literature Theory: A Pilot Study of its Operation in the Classroom

The 1989 Syllabus for English Literature is a vastly different document to any that has preceded it in the past twenty years. It calls on teachers to make a choice between the course they have taught traditionally, or a new cross-generic, issues-based approach to literature. The new syllabus has received a mixed reaction from schools, and has prompted my enquiry into what is being taught in the English Literature classroom.

I am attempting to run a pilot study investigating how the "text", the "reader" and the "author" are treated in ten English Literature classrooms. Through observation, interview and collection of relevant documents I hope to find out what underlying theory of literature is being taught, and how teachers are adopting (or adapting) the new Literature syllabus.

Richard NILE

School Effectiveness: Aboriginal Education and Western Australian Government Schools

This study collected data from school leaders, classroom staff and Aboriginal students and the supporting Aboriginal communities from selected Western Australian Government schools in an attempt to answer a central question: "Are there any factors that identify effective Aboriginal schools?" A multi-method research design framed within the general case-study approach was utilised. This methodology employed questionnaires, interviews and participant observation linked within the ethnographic tradition. A general mode of school improvement proposed by Fullan (1985) was used as the basis for the investigative approach.


Higher Education and TAFE Professional Development: A Distance Education Perspective

The Office of TAFE in Western Australia is currently introducing a package of reforms which includes an important role for individual staff development. The higher education sector should be paying close attention to these needs. Continuing and professional education is being offered to primary and secondary school teachers, both on and off campus, but these are not relevant to the needs spelt out in the TAFE New Directions documents.

With the setting up of specialised Distance Education Centres across Australia, distance education will become an important mode of delivery for TAFE teachers and administrators constrained by irregular working hours, industrial demands and the need for relevant, hands-on experience. The Distance Education Centres should be concerned with designing attractive, flexible higher education packages leading to Post Graduate Diplomas and Masters degrees on a national basis.

Alistair PEACOCK

No Blame, No Pain, Much Gain: Peer Supervision for Teacher Self Development

The purpose of this thirty minute session is two-fold. Firstly, some ten minutes will be spent explaining the concept of supervision within the classroom. This concept will then be extended to clinical supervision and peer supervision. The next twenty minutes will be spent in brief discussion with participants on the key issues inherent in the concept of peer supervision. A short specific exercise involving participants examining their personal teaching situation will provide possible directions for teachers exercising greater control over their self development through the process of peer supervision.

SESSION THREE 10.00 - 10.30


Writing Skills at Tertiary Level: Development of a Programme Within Context

Study at tertiary level requires students to produce a variety of written assignments, e.g. essays, reports, summaries. Effective writing contributes significantly to successful completion of outcomes in these areas.

In our experience, even students who have been successful in the TEE exams may find that writing at tertiary level requires additional skills not normally acquired at secondary level. Competent writing includes not only such basic skills as spelling and punctuation, but also the ability to integrate and transform knowledge into effective prose. Students can be assisted in developing these higher order skills by specific instruction, practice and feedback, and by practising the skills in small groups.

A programme was developed to assist first year undergraduate education students with the task of writing. Sessions were run as part of regular tutorial times for a core educational psychology unit, and included the topics of planning, structure, composure, reviewing and editing. Samples of student writing, pre- and post-intervention, were compared. In addition feedback from students on the relevance and helpfulness of the sessions was obtained. These results and their implications will be discussed.

Isabelle PROCTER

Issues Relating to Research on Aboriginal People

Aboriginal people are often the subjects of research projects relating to education. In most cases research on Aboriginal people is perceived to be undertaken to investigate the causes for their obvious educational disadvantage and to provide data that will lead to more effective educational programs and benefits for this target group.

However in some cases the reverse occurs. Findings and results of research projects are often detrimental in many ways to Aboriginal people and as such assist in the perpetuation of the stereotypic view that Aboriginal people are "deficient".

In this session issues relating to research on Aboriginal people will be explored and addressed.

Gerald LLOYD

National Youth Affairs Research Scheme: Post Compulsory Agricultural Education in W.A.

To identify types of programmes and services available for rural young people specifically in the area of Agricultural Education in the post compulsory section. To ascertain the needs of rural youth in the area of Agricultural Education in the post compulsory section. Survey of the types of programs available at present through Schools, TAFE, Distance Education and Technical Extension Service, plus support available from various Government and private Agricultural agencies, completed by 31st August 1989. Survey of Year 10 students in rural areas on the types of Agricultural Education desired, completed by 22nd September, 1989.

To develop strategies in areas of Agricultural Education in the post compulsory section which address the needs of rural youth and cover those areas not now covered by existing programs. Design of courses to cater for desires covered in the second survey and not covered in the first survey. Complete project by 20th December.


A Case Study of Beginning Teachers

The research discussed in this paper was of a recent study 'Conceptions of Teaching During Induction'. This study reported the induction experiences of twelve graduates of the Diploma of Teaching, Primary, at Brisbane CAE - Carseldine. Over the course of this first year of teaching these beginning teachers were interviewed on four occasions to investigate their changing conceptions of teaching. Data was gathered on the successes and difficulties of beginning teachers, their needs and aspirations, their actual experiences of appointment and placement within a school, the adequacy of their pre-service teacher preparation program, their impressions of the induction process.

Case study methodology was used to portray the real world of informants as they proceeded through their induction year.

Data from interviews and a questionnaire were analysed using a constant comparative method (Glasser and Strauss, 1969) to generate propositions pertaining to the experiences of these new teachers. From the analysis and interpretation of data a model of professional development was prepared.

SESSION FOUR 11.00 - 11.30

Neville GREEN

Using a Word Processor for a Research Thesis

Using a word processor sounds great - but there are pitfalls for the unwary. This is a discussion and demonstration of the methods I used for a Masters and for a PhD Thesis.


An Evaluation of the Home-School Support Programme: Implications for Schools?

The Department for Community Services operates the Home-School Support Programme for school age clients who are experiencing problems with schooling. The students are given assistance by an Education Officer who acts as an advocate for the child, negotiating with parents or care givers, schools and community organizations and others. The service is highly regarded by all who are associated with it and it has possibilities as a model for school intervention. In this presentation Dr. Partington will consider some of the implications of the programme.


Factors Influencing Subject Selection for Years 11 and 12

This paper reports the results of research into factors influencing selection of subjects for the final two years of secondary school. The investigation was requested as a result of the unexpected loss of popularity of two particular subjects in 1988 : Law (non TEE) and Computing (TEE).

Findings on the most significant factors influencing subject choice, and the perceived difficulty and usefulness of a range of subjects, will be presented.


The ECE Teacher: A Role Analysis

What are the pitfalls in investigating this topic - The design of the research project will be outlined - "there is no such thing as a simple questionnaire"

Workshop participants feedback is most eagerly sought.

SESSION FIVE 11.30 - 12.00


Self-Efficacy and Learning Environments

Research indicates that when both goals and rewards are used in the classroom, self-efficacy and achievement are higher than when either goals or rewards alone are used. This paper describes a study, currently in progress, which compares self-efficacy, self-perception of achievement and actual achievement in three types of goal/reward structures often used to varying degrees and in various combinations by teachers.

The study is being conducted in existing year five classrooms. Each teacher has been allocated randomly to teach their social studies lessons in a co-operative, competitive or individualistic learning environment. Measures on the dependent variables will be taken after each of two on-going five-week periods, with the aim of testing whether any differences occur in the measurement of these variables across the different environments.

Room EP6

Classroom Management or Chaos

Without order in the classroom there can be little academic learning.

It is axiomatic that academic learning is the main objective of secondary classroom activities over time. Successful classroom management includes the skills required to establish and maintain order.

This presentation will focus on research being conducted with student teachers in Western Australian secondary classrooms, including:

  1. skills required for the management of pupil behaviour
  2. problems involved in the measurement of classroom behaviours


Work Studies - How Is It Being Implemented?

The recently (S.E.A.) accredited Subjects, Work Studies Years 11 and 12, are currently being implemented in 32 high schools throughout the State. Ten of these schools have "project" or "pilot" status and are involved in an extensive professional development programme designed to give maximum support to teachers engaged in an interactive curriculum writing process. A reference group, representing a broad range of community interests and views, has added a vital dimension to the approach and outcomes of this project. Whilst is it still early days, the anecdotal evidence is showing that the amount of quality of professional development is having a marked effect upon the project teachers' attitudes and approach to the successful implementation of the subject.

Laurence CHIANG

Moments of Interpretation: A Neglected Species in Ethnography

By inquiring into the moments of interpretation, the taken-for-granted junctures where understanding is believed to eventuate, this presentation argues that claims by educators on the suitability of ethnographic research to comprehend human affairs are untenable. It further urges that presuppositions of ethnography be reexamined critically.

SESSION SIX 12.00 - 12.30


Assessing the Organizational Climate of Secondary Schools

A study currently underway describes and analyses the impact of a school's organizational characteristics on the implementation process of certain features of the Better Schools initiative. Prompted by literature on innovation, change and school improvement, the relationship between a school's organizational climate and the implementation process, suggests closer examination of change settings might advance our understanding of how schools change.

To identify schools with distinctly different organizational climates an instrument was developed, the School Organizational Climate Questionnaire (SOCQ), which had a preferred and actual form of the instrument. Prior to seeking permission to conduct such research it was considered that the inclusion of the preferred form would provide additional information that might be useful for participating schools themselves. During the negotiations to conduct research in each school, a commitment was undertaken to provide the school with a summary report of the data obtained. This paper focuses on this phase of the study.


The Meerilinga Young Children's Foundation

"Meerilinga" has been associated with young children in Western Australia for more than 50 years. Its first role was as a Training College for kindergarten teachers. Most recently it has become the home of nearly 30 voluntary, community groups concerned with a variety of children's needs and interests. It is now establishing a professional wing under the umbrella of the Meerilinga Young Children's Foundation Inc. which will have a strong thrust in the areas of research, especially child development, and policy analysis as well as providing services and assistance for the voluntary groups which will continue to use Meerilinga as a base. It is a totally independent organisation committed to the needs, rights and interests of all young children, not only in Western Australia but wherever they may be. We believe this to be an important and significant new initiative which will draw support from all Australians, and would like to inform those involved in educational research about the Foundation.


Adult Learners in a Senior College

The senior colleges were established in Western Australia to meet the 'second chance' education needs of adults in the community. The two colleges offer a range of educational opportunities including Tertiary Entrance Examination studies at Year 12 level. The current senior college population includes mature age entry adult students, repeat Year 12 students and overseas and English as a second language students.

This case study focused on students in the TEE stream of study in the college and investigated student perceptions of the classroom environment and student preferences in teaching approaches in the classroom. Staff perceptions of their instructional role in the college were investigated, particularly in relation to their previous teaching experience.


Novices Can Be Taught To Solve Problems Like Experts

This paper describes the culmination of a research project set in the expert-novice paradigm. The purpose of the project was to identify differences in expert and novices' use of genetics knowledge in hypothesis testing whilst solving genetic pedigree problems, and to develop an educational intervention that would train novice geneticists in the experts' strategies. The paper reports the findings of an experimental study in which a group of novice geneticists were trained to use experts' hypothesis testing strategies.

SESSION SEVEN 1.30 - 2.00


Organisational Climate, Personal Variables and Overall Job Satisfaction in Teachers in Secondary Schools

This study investigates the amount of variance in teachers' levels of overall job satisfaction explainable by features within the school organisational climate and personal factors associated with teaching experience.

Deidra YOUNG

Sex Differences and Socio-educational Factors

This session will present some preliminary findings of the Second International Science Study and the differences between male and female science achievement. The study consists of data collected from Australian schools in 1983 by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) and the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER).

The science achievement of students can be linked not only to student and school characteristics, but home background variables such as the occupation of the mother and father. The home background variables which make up the Socio-educational Level index are discussed and the construction and analysis of this index are presented. These variable include the occupation of the mother and father, the educational attainment of the mother and father, the number of books in the home and the size of the family.


Can Industrial Action Affect the Curriculum of Students?

The introduction of the Unit Curriculum for lower secondary students in 1988 was accompanied by over sized classes and consequent industrial action. The action was suspended when the Ministry and the State School Teachers Union agreed that Class Size Panels would be set up to review the situation in those schools experiencing acute problems and to make recommendations for interim solutions.

The forum presentation will examine some of the consequences of the Panel processes and their recommendations, including the effects on the curriculum of students, and curriculum policy making at the school level.


The Secondary Curriculum for Low Achievers in W.A.: Theory and Practice

This study critiques four major ideologies of the secondary curriculum for low achievers - liberal education, alternative or popular education, radical education, and the common culture curriculum. On the basis of this theoretical analysis a model of the optimum curriculum for low achievers (OCLA) is developed with input from teachers representative of secondary schools in WA.

SESSION EIGHT 2.00 - 2.30

Graeme LOCK

Strategies for Increasing Community Participation in School Decision-Making Processes

The presentation will be based on a thesis which I prepared for the degree of Master of Education at WACAE.

The presentation will outline strategies by which school administrative teams can increase community participation in school decision-making processes. The aim of the strategies is to motivate parents and community members to serve on school-based decision-making groups.

In presenting the strategies the underlying premises - the need for an overall plan, the availability of adequate time and the provision of sufficient financial resources - will be discussed. The strategies will include the formation of an implementation team; organisation of a timetable; the development, implementation, and consideration of a community analysis; anticipation of difficulties; the establishment of an effective communication system; the development and implementation of specific motivational strategies; and evaluation of the change process. Consideration is also given to school situations where modifications to the suggested strategies may be necessary.


The Lone Father Family: Implications for Education

Throughout the western world, fathers are increasingly taking responsibility for the care and education of their children in the absence of the mothers.

This paper reports on the results of a research investigation into 52 lone father families residing in Western Australia. Background information, as well as details of child-care and interaction in addition to fathers' attitudes and values concerning their parenting role are presented.

In addition, details on the fathers' sex-role classification and the effect on their children's sex-role learning are presented. Finally, implications are drawn for all those concerned with young children, and ways in which the child of the lone father can be supported are emphasised.


A Classroom Environment Questionnaire for Science Laboratories

A new instrument called the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory has been developed to assess levels of Teacher Supportiveness, Involvement, Student Cohesiveness, Open-endedness, Integration, Organisation, Rule Clarity, and the Material Environment of science laboratory classes at either the Senior High School or at the Higher Education level.


Teaching Girls to Think Scientifically

A test of Logical Thinking (Tobin & Copie, 1981) administered a population of Year 11 female science students revealed that many of the girls were unable to apply patterns of thinking that are critical for learning science, for example, the isolation and control of variables, proportional reasoning and probabilistic reasoning. The purpose of this project was to conduct an educational intervention that is directed at improving the girls understanding of the nature of scientific investigation and facility with those reasoning patterns prerequisite to achievement in science. This paper describes the project and reports a preliminary analysis of the data.


25-26 AUGUST 1989.

ANGUS Max, Ministry of Education, Royal St East Perth.
ATKINSON Roger, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150.
ALDERSON Anna, Meerilinga Young Children's Foundation, West Perth.
BAIN Alan, University of Western Australia, Crawley.
BERRY Michael, John XXIII College, Mt. Claremont 6010.
BERSAN, Janine, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
BOOTH, Michael, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150.
BRISCOE Deidre, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
BUTCHER Janne, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
BURGESS Yvonne, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
BUTTERWORTH Dawn, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
CAMPBELL-EVANS Glenda, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
CANUTE Helen, University of Western Australia, Crawley.
CARR Joan, City Beach Primary, Marpana Rd City Beach.
CIUPRYK Fran, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
CHIANG Laurence, University of Uestern Australia, Crawley.
COFFMAN Charles, Scarborough District Office, Newborough St Doubleview.
COLLINS Gary, Fremantle College of TAFE, Fremantle.
CULLEN Susan, University of Western Australia, Crawley.
DELLAR Graham, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
DEVINE Kelvin, State School Teachers Union, Adelaide Tce East Perth.
DOWN Barry, Bunbury Institute of Advanced Education, Bunbury.
ERRINGTON Edward, Mount Lawley Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
ERRINGTON Rowena, Mount Lawley Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
EVANS Ken, Ministry of Education, Royal St East Perth.
FRASER Barry, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
GARDNER Ruth, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
GARNETT Patrick, Nedlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
GEIJSEL Marie, University of Western Australia, Crawley
GIDDINGS Geoff, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
GREEN Neville, Mount Lawley Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
GREGG Alison, University of Western Australia, Crawley.
GREGG Jim, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
HACKLING Mark, Nedlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
HARRIS John, Ministry of Education, Royal St East Perth.
HATTIE John, University of Western Australia, Crawley.
HENDERSON Charles, TAFE, Ministry of Education, Royal St East Perth.
HUTCHINSON Bill, Hale School, Wembley Downs 6019.
INGRAM Eilys, University of Western Australia, Crawley.
JONGLING Sybe, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
KING Len, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
KIRKPATRICK Denise, Tuart College, Banksia St Tuart Hill.
LARSEN Peter, Secondary Education Authority, Stirling Hwy Nedlands.
LEGGETT Bridget, Ministry of Education, Royal St East Perth.
LIEBMANN Roger, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
LLOYD Gerald, District Education Office, PO Box 738, ESPERANCE 6450.
LOCK Graeme, Hale School, Wembley Downs 6019.
MAOR Dorit, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
MASON Dale, Bunbury Institute of Advanced Education, Bunbury.
MALONEY Carmel, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
MILES Joan, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
MORIARTY Beverley, University of Western Australia, Crawley.
McBEATH Clare, Curtin University ot Technology, Bentley 6102.
McBRIDE Sharon, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
McKINTY William, 16 Granadilla St Duncraig 6023.
NILE Richard, Ministry of Education, Royal St East Perth.
OLIVER Jeff, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
PARTINGTON Gary, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
PATTERSON Annette, University of Western Australia, Crawley.
PEACOCK Alistair, Nedlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
PEDLER Pender, Mount Lawley Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
PROCTER Isabelle, Ministry of Education, 58 McGilvray Ave Morley 6062.
RADLOFF Alex, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
REID Patrick, John XIII College, Mt Claremont 6010.
RISTIC Janet, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
RIVALLAND Judith, Claremont Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
RYAN Anthony, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
SAMSON Joanne, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
SANDERS Don, Scarborough District Office, Newborough St Doubleview 6018.
SMART Don, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150.
SPINA Diane, Scarborough District Office, Newborough St Doubleview 6018.
TAGGART Andrew, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
TAYLER Collette, Churchlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
TAYLOR Peter, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
TITMANIS Peter, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
WILLIAMS Coralyn, University of Western Australia, Crawley.
WILLIAMS Janet, Nedlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
WILLIAMS Susanne, Fremantle Hospital Education Centre, Fremantle 6160.
WILLIAMSON John, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.
WOODS John, Nedlands Campus, W.A.C.A.E.
YOUNG Deidra, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley 6102.

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